Call to Action: The 10 Most Effective Techniques

Every website should have a call to action, a response you want users to complete. But how do you encourage users to act? How do you create an effective call to action?

Having an effective call to action is an essential part of any website. A call to action is not only limited to ecommerce sites. Every website should have a goal it wants users to complete. Whether it is filling in a contact form, signup for a newsletter or volunteering their time.

A call to action provides…

  • Focus to your site
  • A way to measure your sites success
  • Direction for your users

How then do you create an effective call to action? Here are 10 techniques which help achieve that.

1. Focus on the value your call to action provides

Before a user is willing to complete a call to action they have to recognise the need. Infomercials do this well. Before they ask people to respond, they first identify a problem. They then present a product that solves that problem.

You also need to communicate the benefits of responding. What will the user get out of completing the call to action?

Take for example Skype. Above their download call to action they make the benefits of doing so clear:

Skype make the benefits of clicking their call to action clear.

But beware! Sometimes in our rush to create compelling calls to action we lose clarity. At the top of Skype’s homepage it is not immediately obvious what Skype does. It’s copy is emotional, but not obvious. You need both.

In an attempt to sell the benefits, Skype fails to describe what their product is and does.

2. Address the user’s questions about the call to action

Completing a call to action is often a step of trust on behalf of the user. They may have to make a payment or give you personal details. This means they often have questions and concerns. Concerns they will want addressing before they take action.

Customers shouldn’t have to go hunting for delivery charges or a return policy. You will need to reassure those signing up for a newsletter about how often you will email them. They will also want to know it is easy to unsubscribe.

This newsletter call to action doesn't only sell the benefits of signing up. It also answers user questions about number of emails and unsubscribing.

3. Have a small number of distinct calls to action

It is also important to focus your actions. Too many and the user becomes overwhelmed. Studies in supermarkets have shown that if the shopper sees too many options they are less likely to buy.

By limiting the number of choices a user has to make we reduce the amount of mental effort. You guide the user around the site step by step. This applies to everything from navigational options to calls to action.

The number of appropriate calls to action will vary from site to site. But, it is not so much the number of calls to action as the distinctiveness of each.

Take for example this recent preorder I tried to make on Amazon. I was only presented with two calls to action. The problem was there was no clear distinction between the two. Which option was I meant to click to buy?

If you have more than one call to action, make sure they are distinct. If they are too similar users will not choose.

4. Think about how you position your call to action

Another important factor is the position of your call to action on the page. You should place it high on the page and in the central column, as shown in the example below.

Place calls to action high on the page and central.

But be careful. This does not guarantee success especially when there are images of faces on the page. Faces draw our attention away from a call to action, as you can see in this eye tracking heat map.

Consider the position of your call to action in relation to other screen elements. Especially when there are faces.

Fortunately we can use this to our advantage too. If the face and call to action are associated, it will help focus users on the call to action. Alternatively if the person is looking towards the call to action, this will draw the users eye.

By associating images with a call to action it can help to draw the users attention.

Consider position in the journey too

Don’t only consider the call to action’s position on the page. Also think about the right time to ask the user to respond.

Consider how you position your call to action in the user journey. Ask too soon and users won't respond.

When I visited Bonobos to buy a t-shirt they presented me with a popup. A popup that promised me a discount in return for my email address. The problem was I hadn’t seen any t-shirts at this point. I didn’t know if I wanted the discount because I didn’t know if I wanted one of their t-shirts. They had asked me to complete a call to action at the wrong time.

5. Use negative space around your call to action

It is not only the position of your call to action that matters. It is also the space around it. The more space you place around a call to action the more attention you draw to it. Clutter up your call to action with surrounding content and you will lose it in the noise of the page.

A simple comparison of the Yahoo and Google homepages shows how negative space draws the eye to calls to action.

6. Consider using an alternative colour on your call to action

Colour is an effective way of drawing attention to elements. This is especially true if the rest of the site has a limited palette.

This example does it well. While the rest of the site uses muted blues and grey, the call to action is a vibrant green. This extreme contrast leaves the user in no doubt what they should do next.

A strong contrasting colour can be great for drawing the attention to a call to action.

Of course, never rely solely on colour because many users are colour blind and will not see the contrast.

7. When it comes to a call to action, size matters

As web designers we often get annoyed with clients who ask us to make things bigger. It is true that size isn’t everything. We have already established that position, colour and white space are also important.

But we cannot deny that size does play a large part. The bigger your call to action, the more chance users will notice it. Also a large call to action enables us to add more compelling copy.

When it comes to calls to action, size does matter. Make it bold, make it obvious.

8. Use scarcity to encourage action

An understanding of psychology will make a big difference to how effective your calls to action are.

For example, creating a sense of urgency by limiting supply will encourage people to act. People hate to miss out! To create a sense of urgency and a need to act now, consider:

  • Offering limited time discounts.
  • Limiting supply.
  • Highlighting how quickly you are selling out. uses the idea of scarcity well. They show you how few rooms are still available. Then they tell you how many other people are viewing that hotel. This spurs you into action. You fear that if you do not book the room it will be gone. This is the power of scarcity. use scarcity to motivate people into booking now.

But this is just the tip of the iceberg. To learn more about the power of psychology I recommend Susan Weinschenk’s book 100 Things Every Designer Needs to Know About People.

9. Follow through on your call to action

Consider what happens when a user does respond to your call to action. The rest of the process needs to be as thought through as the call to action itself.

After all the journey rarely ends when the user clicks the call to action. There might be a sign up process, email communications, or any number of different steps. You need to streamline these to avoid distractions. Distractions which might stop the user finishing the process.

Notice how Amazon remove any distractions once you click their checkout call to action.

10. Have a call to action on every page

Make sure your call to action is not only found on your homepage. Every page of your site should have some form of call to action that leads the user on. If the user reaches a dead-end they will leave without responding to your call.

My main call to action is to encourage you to signup to my newsletter. To make sure you don't miss it, I have placed it at the bottom of every single page.

My call to action appears on every page of this blog.

Your call to action does not need to be the same for each page. Instead you can use smaller actions that lead the user towards your ultimate goal.

Beware of annoying people

A good call to action will make a big difference to conversion. But these techniques can be dangerous too.

We can use them to manipulate users into taking action. This is especially true when we delve into the world of psychology. But this often creates buyers remorse. Users feel tricked and that can often lead to negative comments online. Comments that damage long term sales.

Attempting to manipulate users only annoys them.

But the problem does not stop there. In our desperation to convert we often shove our actions down the users throats. We annoy users with overlays and popups. Although these techniques do work, they come at a price. For every user you convert, you alienate ten more.

When it comes to calls to action, proceed with caution. Don’t only focus on conversion. Also focus on perception. How does your call to action reflect on your brand? If you do, then they will help improve your bottom line over the long term.

  • Superb well written article, thank you.

  • Useful stuff Paul! Oddly enough I was just facing this very topic with one of our clients’ homepages yesterday. Further to your point 10, I included a tiny message (in a handwritten typeface) next to the action button, that informed the user that hitting the button and completing the subsequent form, was a mere 30 second process – encourging clicks and putting lazy peoples minds at rest… ;)

  • You know Ted, making an effictive call-through is a lot like making love to a beautiful woman. First you lay the groundwork, maybe offer a little extra. Make sure you have a small number of distinct actions. Use active, urgent, language. Get the position right. Then make it big, and carry the call through!

  • Phil

    yeah, I’m totally with Stewart Curry :)

  • Great post Paul, the idea of “Call to action” on a website is a concept I am trying to push to my smaller clients at the moment. This is a good resource which hopefully will help get the idea across to them.

  • Lmao @stewart
    That’s one way of putting it :D

  • Wow that is a great post! I just discovered your blog with Smashingmagazine Twitt. Keep up the good work!

  • Good post. As a matter of fact, the folks here at PBwiki are considering removing the Buy Now button in the next restructuring of the Web site. Would love to hear any additional thoughts on how to optimize our site.

  • This is a good resource which hopefully will help get the idea across to them. thanks

  • penkapp

    Good stuff, Paul. From my experience:
    1) a small number of distinct actions
    2) whitespace
    3) carry the call through
    are the top three if I had to rank them. Without carrying the call through, visitors are left disappointed and will either not come back or notify others not to bother. Doing a poor job of satisfying the latter can instantly kill your site traffic and any possible related revenue.

    • I would highly recommend having only one call to action visible at any one time. More than one adds confusion and leads to less actions being taken overall – as a general rule of thumb.

      Great article. Thanks for sharing. I’ve taken inspiration from this and created my own post on effective call to actions – and linked back to you (effective call to action).

  • Matthijs

    Excellent advice. One point I’d like to add: if you have a call to action somewhere, make sure it is 100% obvious to a visitor what will happen if they react to that call to action.
    So often I come across potentially interesting offers, I’m at the point of clicking the call to action button or filling in a form (or something like that), but what stops me is that it isn’t clear what’s going to happen next.
    Do I have to go through a long and tedious sign up process? Am I buying something immediately when I click this? What will they do with the personal info I’m filling in? Etc etc
    A big “Sign up now!” button is nice, but only half the story I think.
    (this is just personal experience by the way. Maybe the marketing guys have found out that my concerns don’t apply to the general public)

  • beautiful examples btw.
    nice refresher course..the challenge is to design sites that use these design principles AND keep all of your web designs from looking the same. Our challenge is designing thousands of websites and making each one unique while sticking to these great tips.

  • Made information be felt close to voip

  • Inerxia

    Thats why the little “Share this” icons doesnt work for blogs, they are so many options and services…

  • Joy

    Fantastic article. Thanks! You just gave me ideas for my next blog update. :)

  • Hmmm… just last night my friend and I decided to launch the “Brass Balls Radio Anti-Ethanol Movement”, to save the (tequila producing) agave farms of Mexico. I do believe we shall implement some of these ideas as we launch our “Save Agave, Fight Scurvy!” campaign.

  • Very useful article, thanks a lot :)

  • Thank you for this nice detailed article. I will try and use this for every project from now on.

  • very nice thank you

  • Jeremy

    I enjoyed the article. Thank you for taking the time to share.

  • Fantastic and well documented article. It really is true in the world of business or communication, that if we focus on our audience then we will get greater returns. What firefox, wordpress, and others have done by focusing on the call to action is brilliant. I would love to see more websites do the same.

  • Great post. I’ve been thinking about incorporating a call to action on my site for some time. I am not a large company, with a software type product, but a PR pro and social media guide selling my services to non-profits, small businesses and speakers/coaches. I think those selling services have to make extra sure we are giving enough value and being authentic, that folks can believe in your expertise enough to sign up, contact you or whatever your call to action ends up being. I think customer testimonials are very useful for helping build the authenticity of a brand as well.
    Thanks for the good info

  • Sorry to comment twice, but after re-reading comments, I agree with Matthijs above. Try and use language that gives the potential customer a clue about what will happen when they take the suggested action.
    I was just reading a Copy Blogger post ( that by changing a word or two increased his entry level jobs blog RSS subscriptions by 254%. He changed the word subscribe to RSS feed to Get Jobs by RSS. Because a large percentage of people equate the word subscribe with paying money, the way subscribing to a magazine costs money, that perception created a barrier to sign-ups. Changing the words clarified the results of the all to action and increased responses dramatically.
    I have suggested to my small business clients that we us the words sign-up or free subscription as some of their clients/customers are unfamiliar with RSS feeds, what they do and how they work. The RSS feed button is something that many tech-savvy folks take for gratnetd, but that many potential customers may not.
    I personally hate clicking a link, filling out a sign-up form, and THEN finding out that there is a cost or charge. If I know it up front, I’m more likely to buy in (pun intended).
    We need to be sure to step outside of our own preconceptions and think like our potential customers. Use their language, not our jargon.

  • Dan

    Thanks for posting this, extremely useful for designers.

  • Very useful post, very well written!
    I agree with Cathy, I think you will need to consider your audience and make the call to actions work for them rather than for you. After all, they will be using your site.

  • Thanks for the mention Paul. Useful guide.

  • Well written and extremely useful article with good selection of examples. Thanks a lot for this guideline.

  • Great tips. I like #3. It’s what I call the “Entropy Factor” Don’t let it get out of control.

  • Really good stuff. This article will the standard by which I judge my future websites.

  • I like the idea that EVERY website has a call to action – even if it isn’t obvious.
    But one major point about CTAs that I would suggest is the need to TEST. If you are using instinct or “gut feeling” to guide your choices about what makes a better Call to Action, then you aren’t listening to what the visitors are saying. You need some kind of testing platform to find out the actual affect that your changes have on the success rate of your call to action.
    Thanks for the articles and podcasts!

  • Very well written. I was just talking to a client and I stated they needed to ask themselves one question : What do you want your website to do? A website is designed to do one thing and one thing only: exactly what you want your site visitors to do. You are also aware that a website is a marketing strategy. Any solid marketing strategy is supported by other strategies.
    More sign ups for your email list
    More RSS subscribers
    Higher conversion rates from visitors to customers
    Email inquiries about services
    Maybe not in that order but the bottom line remains websites are no longer just a face on the Internet, it has to be designed to do something. Thanks for putting this together.

  • Brilliant post. Focus is everything, really
    Our multitasking brain often makes us forget of it
    but it is always good to remember !

  • Extremely useful, easily digested list with fab illustrations. I will be applying the details to my evolving garden design website. Many, many thanks for sharing!

  • How about those sites that already been doing well without having these ideas what little changes shall be made?

  • Very useful post, very well written!
    I agree with Cathy, I think you will need to consider your audience and make the call to actions work for them rather than for you. After all, they will be using your site.

  • Thank you – I have tried a couple of these techniques and I noticed an immediate improvement so I’m back for more.

  • Some good stuff there – I didn’t really know what a “call to action” was supposed to do before reading this! As I’m not selling things directly, I can’t use some of these, but I like the idea of having one on every page – perhaps a different coloured banner at the bottom with “Contact me Here”…

  • I have to admit I was making a lot of mistakes with call to action… Well thanks to you i know what to do now. Thanks for a great tut on this.

  • This is article is really useful and covers just about all I needed to know before creating effective ‘Call To Actions’.

    Looking forward to implementing them more efficiently as a result.

  • hey, this article of yours is EXCELLENT, i bought a book on call to action, and there was soooooooo much WAFFLE. Your article was straight to the point and is clearly written, and your examples were really good. I’m now addressing my website with your ideas. By the way love your website theme too.

    Great stuff

  • Thanks for all of the great advice! I am trying to build calls-to-action into our company blogs and want to be as effective as possible. Lots of good advice here!

  • Call to action buttons can be intimidating if you’re not sure where it is going to lead you. A proper description is needed, but the appearance of the button surely helps too. It feels more secure to click something green or blue since the colors seem ‘safe’. A big red button creates the impression that I’m about to execute something big and there’s no turning back once I click it.

    Thanks, that’s a nice article.

  • Tim

    With regards to #4 “Use active Urgent Language”, I have been reflecting on this over the last few days – so your article is very timely Paul! – and I think “Today” is another very good word that can be used …

    As in, “Order today to receive your free gift”, “Call us, and start enjoying the benefits of … today”, and so on.

  • I totally agree with Poker guy. You have to take the human mind into consideration while designing this kind of functions.

  • Very good article. I just came across this with a quick google search on ‘call to action in websites’. This was exactly the insight what I was looking for. kudos.

    3 was perfect for the project I’m working on and my client was please with the idea.

    • You need to start thinking about your site design with personas in mind. Even if these are just short descriptions or notes for yourself, we always need to design with the end user firmly in mind from the outset.

  • excellent, well constructed article. the understanding of the concept of negative space can not be underestimated.

  • Thanks for your informative article.

    I will try to develop a call to action strategy for my next web project.

  • It’s funny, I’ve been reading a ton about calls to action and have even paid people a lot of money to learn from them.. and i see screenshots of some of the same websites they use in their example on this page! :)

  • Exactly what I was looking for to convince my boss to use the word “call” in front of our phone number.

  • Exactly what I was looking for to convince my boss to use the word “call” in front of our phone number.

  • Thanks a lot. This article has greatly benefited me. 


  • Paul,

    I enjoyed this article. Very informative and visually appealing. The key to effective call to action is to follow the techniques mentioned above.


    Stacie Walker

  • Anonymous

    very helpful….thank you so much for sharing!!!

  • We have been doing some call to actions on our homepage having read your great post. However some inpuit would be great as to making them better… You can view them here: i hope thats ok!

  • Paul, years down the track, I find that I can still recommend this article to my colleagues. A timeless article. If I could add just one point 
    (a bonus, perhaps)  it would be split testing the call to action on the page.

    I was absolutely convinced at one stage that “Switch to ClientName” was the perfect call to action for our client, but it turned out after we tested it, that it decreased conversion rates by like 80%. Sometimes it pays to try a few different ones out (based on varying the techniques you’ve outlined here) to see what works.

  • Came across this site: that has a (in my opinion) eye-catching call to actions on the home page for each post listed… The CTA is revealed on hover. Very cool :)

  • Adam Leviton

    Thank you for explaining the strategy behind CTAs, and not just “how to make a pretty button.”

  • Really love your site Paul… While I won’t pander by enumerating all the things that you obviously thought were good ideas; I cannot resist giving kudos on the Estimated reading time. That single addition, earned you my subscription click.

    Sorry for the off-topic comment- but this is where I happened to be when I felt the impulse to say “Well Done!”

  • Thanks for a great post. I’ve been banging on about call to action for years but many folks in small businesses just don’t seem to get it.

    • That is fascinating. I cannot understand why any business owner would not interested in calls to action. What do they answer when you ask them their reason for having a website.

      • It’s a good question and much of it has to do with the sectors I work in (accountants and lawyers) where having anything other than a stuffy ‘same as the rest of them’ website is seen as a little too extravagant.
        With one client  I suggested having a large sidebar button prompt to join the newsletter in exchange for a free business assessment tool and the client’s response was “that doesn’t sound very professional and we’re not giving anything away for free”.

        Occasionally, hitting your head against a wall is less painful…

  • Ian McManus

    One question I have is how do you know the right amount of calls to action?  My client has 3 on this page above the fold, and I’m not sure if it’s too many?  — any thoughts on this?

  • brianjordan05

    Thanks for all of these useful information maybe I can add some call to action with my reviews too. I’ll try all of your tips here. Especiall for my pentax k20d review.

  • Thanks Paul. I once saw a call back feature on a website (wish i could trace the website). Upon clicking on the button it dialled the customer service desk. It had powered by Oracle. But i can’t find that specific solution on Oracle. Can you help? I need it on my website. 

  • bgrggfe

    Do you know who is the prolocutor star of Louis Vuitton Handbags Online  now? It is the Sofia Coppola, she is well-know with the director of movies. Of course she like the LV very much ,especial the Louis Vuitton Wallet,but she never buy something from the Louis Vuitton outlet store, because she always get freely and show the newest louis vuitton items .

  • Very use full information about how can improve home page call to action ! ! 

  • Bernadette Brennan

    Thanks, great blog on call to action. Very succinct and the visual examples really helped to get your point across. Am about to try and put it into practice on my website as I think it is lacking a strong enough call to action. Thanks.

  • OK, finally got the call to action button up on my website and in 24 hours have already gotten an enquiry. Wish I’d done it sooner! THANK YOU.

  • Probably one of the most succinct articles I’ve read on creating effective calls to action.

  • Great break down of user behavior.

  • contentverve

    Interesting article with a lot of good pointers. As goes for CTA position, my experience is that the best practice “always have the CTA above the fold” can backfire big time. I just published a case study where moving to CTA to the bottom of a long landing page generated a 304% lift in conversions. You can check it out here:

  • Thank you for the informative and useful information. Thank you for sharing.

  • karan singh

    Call to action is over finale destination to attract the user`s, we need to optimize our add or landing page according to user thought , we just analyse the requirement and thoughts of client and display our features on call to action.

  • Great article!

  • James

    The challenge you still have with well written CTAs, is the webpage is static. Sometimes visitors need something more dynamic to hone their focus in on for a desired call to action like what does.

  • pete

    Very insightful info. However, quite a lot of authors also offer their own concepts on how to write an effective call to action and although most of the information you find helps you learn a thing or two, it would have been great if there were some extensive examples of several ‘call to actions’ which have been written for different purposes. Like for instance how some examples of call to action meta tags that can be used in Internet Marketing articles. This would give any beginner a good idea of how to write their call to action.

  • Soluweb

    I have just discovered this website and have found a lot of valuable information, thanks for sharing.

  • So I am working on a followup to this article. It is going to be an in-depth video course unpacking the techniques used by some of the biggest websites in the world. I am really going to delve into creating an effective call to action. If you want a sneak peak check out the page I have put together. –